Oriogun validating an approach to examining cognitive

The following section describes these three elements and develops hypotheses for each regarding their relationship to online course outcomes.

Therefore, facilitating discourse requires the instructor to review and comment upon student comments, raise questions, and make observations to move discussions in a desired direction, keeping discussion moving efficiently, draw out inactive students, and limit the activity of dominating posters when they become detrimental to the learning of the group (Anderson et al., 2001; Brower, 2003; Coppola et al., 2002; Shea et al., 2003).While recent empirical research may generate a debate regarding whether teaching presence has two (Shea, 2006) or three (Arbaugh & Hwang, 2006) components, the general conceptualization of this Co I element has been supported by subsequent research (Coppola, Hiltz, & Rotter, 2002; La Pointe & Gunawardena, 2004; Stein, Wanstreet, Calvin, Overtoom, & Wheaton, 2005).Anderson and colleagues (2001) describe the design and organization aspect of teaching presence as the planning and design of the structure, process, interaction and evaluation aspects of the online course.However, while the Co I framework is gaining increasing attention among education scholars (Anagnostopoulos, Basmadjian, & Mc Crory, 2005; Arnold & Ducate, 2006; Meyer, 2004; Shea, 2006), studies that examine the framework’s generalizability to online learning in other disciplines is somewhat limited.Also, while the Co I framework has received extensive examination in qualitative studies (Anagnostopoulos et al., 2005; Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005; Heckman & Annabi, 2005; Oriogun, Ravenscroft, & Cook, 2005; Stodel, Thompson, & Mac Donald, 2006), and individual components of the framework have been examined empirically (Arbaugh & Hwang, 2006; Richardson & Swan, 2003; Shea, Fredericksen, Pickett, & Pelz, 2003; Wise, Chang, Duffy, & del Valle, 2004), studies that empirically examine all components of the framework simultaneously are limited.

Oriogun validating an approach to examining cognitive